ASP.NET Web PDF Document Viewer/Editor Control Library

But what if you also want to use the numbers for something else You could certainly just write the same loop again when needed, but what if you had written a more complicated piece of code, for example, one that downloaded a set of Web pages and computed the frequencies of all the words used Would you still want to write all the code several times, once for each time you needed it No, real programmers don t do that. Real programmers are lazy. Not lazy in a bad way, but in the sense that they don t do unnecessary work. So what do real programmers do They make their programs more abstract. You could make the previous program more abstract as follows: num = input('How many numbers do you want ') print fibs(num) Here, only what is specific to this program is written concretely (reading in the number, and printing out the result). Actually computing the Fibonacci numbers is done in an abstract manner: you simply tell the computer to do it. You don t say specifically how it should be done. You create a function called fibs, and use it when you need the functionality of the little Fibonacci program. It saves you a lot of effort if you need it in several places.

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require 'benchmark' iterations = 1000000 do |bm|"for:") do for i in 1..iterations do x = i end end"times:") do iterations.times do |i| x = i end end end

Since the three Key Point slides will all share the same photograph of a hurdle, create a Key Point slide custom layout that includes the photo, as explained in the section Tip 3: Use Custom Layouts to Add the Same Graphic to Related Slides in 8. In this case, use the photo of the hurdle from the Point A slide, except tightly crop the photo and place it on the left side of the split-screen layout, as shown in Figure 9-11.

The primary difference with using the bm method is that it allows you to collect a group of benchmark tests together and display the results in a prettier way. Example output for the preceding code is as follows:

user system for: 0.850000 0.000000 times: 0.970000 0.010000


Abstraction can be useful as a labor saver, but it is actually more important than that. It is the key to making computer programs understandable to humans (which is essential, whether you re writing them or reading them). The computers themselves are perfectly happy with very concrete and specific instructions, but humans generally aren t. If you ask me for directions to the cinema, for example, you wouldn t want me to answer, Walk 10 steps forward, turn 90 degrees to your left, walk another 5 steps, turn 45 degrees to your right, walk 123 steps. You would soon lose track, wouldn t you Now, if I instead told you to Walk down this street until you get to a bridge, cross the bridge, and the cinema is to your left, then you d certainly understand me. The point is that you already know how to walk down the street, and how to cross a bridge. You don t need explicit instructions on how to do either. You structure computer programs in a similar fashion. Your programs should be quite abstract, as in Download page, compute frequencies, print the frequency of each word. This is easily understandable. In fact, let s translate this high-level description to a Python program right now: page = download_page() freqs = compute_frequencies(page) for word, freq in freqs: print word, freq From reading this, you can understand what the program does. However, you haven t explicitly said anything about how it should do it. You just tell the computer to download the page and compute the frequencies. The specifics of these operations will have to be written somewhere else in separate function definitions.

total 0.850000 ( 0.980000 (

real 0.967980) 1.301703)

Return to Normal view of the Call to Action slide, and add three photos of the hurdle, apply the new Key Point custom layouts to the Key Point slides, and add photographs to the Picture placeholders, as shown in Figure 9-12. If you have a Tablet PC, when you present the Call to Action slide (upper left), write on the screen with your stylus the numbers 1, 2, and 3 below each hurdle as you relate the headline, Overcome each hurdle as we face it, and we ll win the race.

bm makes the results even easier to read and provides headings for each column. Another method, bmbm, repeats the benchmark set twice, using the first as a

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